bipolar parent

Depression Changes Our Language

depression
Credit to flickr.com user darkwood 67. Used with permission under a Creative Commons license.

Depression. A pit of despair for many people. Scientists have attempted to pin down the relationship between depression and language for a long time now, and technology has just given researchers the breakthrough they needed.

In the past, field studies were carried out by scientists who took notes on what people said. Now, computers can analyze banks of data in seconds, picking up on patterns that a human analyst might miss. Researchers fed personal essays, diary entries, and blog posts to their computers and found some interesting patterns in the language of people suffering from depression.

It should come as no surprise that people who deal with depression use more negative language, with words such as “lonely,” “sad,” and “miserable.” But what surprised the scientists was the use of first-person pronouns, such as “I,” “myself,” and “me.” People who suffer from depression apparently don’t use very many second- and third-person pronouns, such as “you,” “they,” and “them,” indicating that depression is a self-focused disease. Researchers found that the pronoun usage was more indicative of depression than the negative language.

However, on an examination of 64 different forums, absolutist language, using words such as “always,” “never,” and “completely,” was a better indicator of mental health issues than negative language or pronouns. On suicidal ideation forums, the use of absolutist language was 80% greater than language used by 19 control forums. This shows that people who suffer from depression have a black-and-white outlook.

Scientists hope that computers will soon be able to classify mental disorders from blog posts. Such classification is already outperforming trained therapists.

bipolar parent

New Research Pinpoints Bipolar Disorder Gene

genes.jpg
Credit to flickr.com user Berkeley Lab. Used with permission under a Creative Commons license.

A new study published in the Molecular Psychiatry journal reports that researchers have found a mutation in a gene that causes bipolar disorder in as many as ten percent of cases. This is fantastic news! Finally, the causes of bipolar disorder are starting to be pinpointed.

The gene, G protein receptorkinase 3 (GRK3), regulates neurotransmitters such as dopamine. The mutation happens in a section of the gene called the promoter, which turns GRK3 on and off. Scientists at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) School of Medicine hypothesize that what causes bipolar disorder is that the mutation makes the gene hypersensitive to dopamine.

The study took place over a year, and screened DNA samples from more than 400 families with bipolar disorder. The researchers found six mutations in the promoter region of GRK3. Most notable was that the P-5 mutation happened three times more frequently in people who suffer from bipolar disorder than those who don’t.

Research has long pointed to several genes being the causes of bipolar disorder. But this is the first time a single gene has been determined as a cause. Bipolar disorder is characterized by extreme highs and lows. Few therapies work to treat the mental illness, and those that do work aren’t effective for all people who suffer from it. The scientists involved in this study hope that specific therapies that target genes on a molecular level will be developed.